Abstract (as presented by the authors of the scientific work):
"Silymarin is the extract of Silybum marianum, or milk thistle, and its major active compound is silybin, which has a remarkable biological effect. It is used in different liver disorders, particularly chronic liver diseases, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, because of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic power. Indeed, the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of silymarin is oriented towards the reduction of virus-related liver damages through inflammatory cascade softening and immune system modulation. It also has a direct antiviral effect associated with its intravenous administration in hepatitis C virus infection. With respect to alcohol abuse, silymarin is able to increase cellular vitality and to reduce both lipid peroxidation and cellular necrosis. Furthermore, silymarin/silybin use has important biological effects in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. These substances antagonize the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, by intervening in various therapeutic targets: oxidative stress, insulin resistance, liver fat accumulation and mitochondrial dysfunction. Silymarin is also used in liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma that represent common end stages of different hepatopathies by modulating different molecular patterns. Therefore, the aim of this review is to examine scientific studies concerning the effects derived from silymarin/silybin use in chronic liver diseases, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma."
Covered topics (the letter size corresponds to the frequency of mentioning in the text):
Conclusions (as presented by the authors of the scientific work):
"The “marriage of many years” that links silymarin/silybin to liver diseases, derives from the progressive evidence that, with the passing of time, has led to investigation of, firstly empirically and then scientifically, the mechanisms through which they act in carrying out the therapeutic effect. The studies of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics on silymarin have improved, in the last few years, its applicability in different pathologies, especially liver diseases, allowing, through the use of conjugates compounds, a more efficient application. Through the analysis of literature, it has been demonstrated that silymarin has an effect that allows its use in all of the most frequent causes of liver damage. Indeed, silymarin has three important activities: anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and pro-apoptotic, which represent the “functional triad” that allows for antagonizing the onset and the progression of mechanisms of damage that are responsible for the progression of hepatitis to cirrhosis and HCC. However, it is clear that, also in the end stages of liver pathologies, silymarin can act by limiting de-novo fibrogenesis and antagonizing procarcinogenic mechanisms that cause HCC. Nevertheless, the treatment with silymarin/silybin in routine clinical practice is strongly limited, since it is necessary to obtain scientific data deriving from well-structured trials based on large populations of patients, and to achieve a standardization of methods used for evaluating the therapeutic efficacy, especially in an NAFLD context, that is particularly promising."
Full-text access of the referenced scientific work:
Federico A, Dallio M, Loguercio C. Silymarin/Silybin and Chronic Liver
Disease: A Marriage of Many Years. Molecules. 2017 Jan 24;22(2). pii: E191. doi:
10.3390/molecules22020191. Review. PubMed PMID: 28125040.
Prof. Atanas G. Atanasov (Dr. habil., PhD)